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Texas Instruments IC - Integrated Circuits

Texas Instruments invented the integrated circuit (IC) in the year 1958. The first calculators with integrated circuits used DTL (Diode Transistor Logic), RTL (Resistor Transistor Logic) or TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) elements. These IC's are small building blocks with typical 4 logic gates or 2 flip-flops in a 14 to 16 pin plastic housing. To get a working calculator you need more than 50 of them. The Cal-Tech project demonstrated in 1967 a calculator using only 3 LSI circuits (Large Scale Integration) with more than 1000 transistors per circuit. From that starting point the calculator race created every year new integrated circuits with higher complexity following the Law of Moore. Working at another supplier of integrated circuits, the well known company Intel, Moore stated: Every three years the complexity of integrated circuits will double. The law is proofen, within 30 years the complexity reached more than a million of transistors per integrated circuit. 

In the meantime Texas Instruments stopped the production of integrated circuits for calculators. Most modern TI products use chips from Toshiba. View the calculator chips manufactured by Toshiba here.

It's difficult to get information about the calculator circuits manufactured by Texas Instruments. The following table gives an overview of the known circuits, a brief description and the calculators using them. 

TI - Integrated Circuits   Quick-Link

Family Year Description First Calculator
TMC1730 1970 First TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Canon Pocketronic
TMC1733 1971 Second TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Canon L121
TMC1761 1971 Third TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Canon L163
TMC1824 1971 Forth TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Canon L100A
TMC1827 1972 First TI chip set produced for Olivetti Olivetti Logos 270
TMC1864 1971 First TI chip set produced for Sumlock-Compucorp Compucorp 324G
TMC1876 1972 Second TI chip set produced for Olivetti Olivetti 55
TMS1802 1971 First commercial available single chip calculator unknown
TMS0100 1971 Complete single chip calculator family Bowmar 901B
TMS0120 1972 First single chip scientific calculator SR-10
TMS0200 1973 Chip set for 12 digit calculators TI-4000
TMS0300 1973 Chip set for 12 digit calculators TI-4000
TMS0400 1973 Chip set for 12 digit calculators SR-22
TMC0501 1974 Chip set for scientifical calculators SR-50
TMS0600 1974 Second generation single chip calculators TI-2550
TMS0800 1973 Second generation single chip calculators Canon LE-84
TMS1000 1974 Third generation single chip calculators SR-16
TMS0970 1975 Chip-size optimized single chip calculator TI-1200
TMC0980 1976 Second generation scientific calculator SR-40
TMC1500 1977 Third generation scientific calculator TI-55
TP0320 1978 First generation C-MOS single chip calculators TI-50
TP0310 1978 Simplified C-MOS single chip calculators TI-1030
TP0455 1981 Enhanced C-MOS calculator chips TI-40
TP0456 1981 Enhanced C-MOS calculator chips TI-55-II
TP0458 1986 Enhanced C-MOS calculator chips TI-60
TP0485 1982 Failed C-MOS single chip calculators (TI-88)
TP0530 1982 Failed C-MOS single chip calculators (TI-88)

 

First TI chip set produced for Canon Inc.

This set of 3 integrated circuits was streamlined to the Pocketronic with it's thermal printer. 
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline-Ceramic or Plastic (DIC/DIP) cases with 40 pins.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1730 1970   Canon Pocketronic (Monroe 10)  
TMC1731    
TMC1732     

Second TI chip set produced for Canon Inc.

The second chip set supported displays instead the thermal printer of the Pocketronic. Two different Data Chips are known, the Arithmetic Chip was later replaced.
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline-Ceramic or Plastic (DIC/DIP) cases with 40 pins and 28 pins.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1733 1971 Data Chip Canon L121 (Monroe 620)  
TMC1733A 1971 Data Chip Canon L120  
TMC1734 1971 Data Chip Canon L160 (Monroe 610)  
TMC1737 1971 Data Chip Canon L100  
TMC1753 1971 Timing Chip    
TMC1754 1971 Entry Chip    
TMC1755 1971 Arithmetic Chip    
TMC1807 1971  Arithmetic Chip   Replaced the TMC1755

Third TI chip set produced for Canon Inc.

This chip set consists of 6 integrated circuit, one of them was later replaced.
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline-Plastic (DIP) cases with 40 pins.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1761 1971   Canon L163 (Monroe 650)  
TMC1763 1971   Canon L163, L167P  
TMC1764 1971   Canon L163  
TMC1765 1971   Canon L163, L167P  
TMC1765 1971   Canon L167P  
TMC1767 1971   Canon L163  
TMC1768 1971    Canon L163  
TMC1793 1971   Canon L163 Replaced the TMC1768
TMC1812 1971   Canon L167P  
TMC1816 1971   Canon L167P  

Forth TI chip set produced for Canon Inc.

Compared with the previous chip sets the trend goes toward single chip solutions. Both chips contain together 512*13-bit read-only program memory, a 19*16-bit random-access memory and support calculators with upto 14 digits display width.
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline- Plastic (DIP) cases with 40 pins.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1824 1971 Data Chip Canon L100A, LE-10   
TMC1825 1971 ROM Chip    

First TI chip set produced for Sumlock-Compucorp

This huge chip set was developed by the engineers of Compucorp and produced by AMI. Later TI qualified as a second source to AMI. The chip set forms one of the first programmable calculators, the Compucorp 324G Scientist.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1864 1971 TCL08 - Display Compucorp 324G Replaced by TMC1884
TMC1866 1971 TCL06 - Data   Processor board
TMC1867 1971 TCL05 - Data   Processor board
TMC1868 1971 TCL01 - Printer Compucorp 325 Printer driver
TMC1869 1971 TCL02 - Keyboard   Keyboard-scanning electronic
TMC1870 1971 TCL04 - Data   Processor board
TMC1871 1971 TCL03 - ROM   Interface to RAM and ROM
TMC1872 1971 TCL07 - Data   Processor board
TMC1884 1971 TCL08 - Display    Display multiplexer

First TI chip set produced for Olivetti

This rare chip set was found in October 2010 by fellow collector Miguel from Argentina in an Olivetti Logos 270 desktop printing calculator. The keyboard of the calculator sports unusual [*=] [/=] [Q], [P], [R] keys and [S] and [T]memories.
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline- Plastic (DIP) cases with 28 pins (
TMC1829) and 16 pins (TMC1827, TMC1828).

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1827 1972 not yet discovered Olivetti Logos 270  
TMC1828 1972 not yet discovered    
TMC1829 1972 not yet discovered    

Second TI chip set produced for Olivetti

This rare chip set was found recently in an Olivetti 55 desktop printing calculator. The keyboard of the calculator sports additional [00][000] keys, unusual [*=] [/=] keys and a memory.
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline- Plastic (DIP) cases with 28 pins (TMC1876) and 16 pins (TMC1828, TMC1877).

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1828 1972 not yet discovered Olivetti 55   
TMC1876 1972 not yet discovered    
TMC1877 1972 not yet discovered    

First commercial available single chip calculator

The first commercial available "calculator-on-a-chip" was an MOS integrated circuit announced by TI in September 17, 1971. Find the original press release here. The chip containes 3520-bit read-only program memory, a 182-bit random-access memory and a decimal arithmetic logic unit as well as control, timing, and output decoders but no drivers for the display. This gives an overall complexity of roughly 5000 transistors. The typical supply voltage ot this chip is ±7.2 V at roughly 15 mA power consumption. 
These chips are manufactured in a "state of the art" 10-micron 1-metal PMOS process and using Dual-Inline- Plastic (DIP) cases with 28 pins.
It took about a year till the first copy of the original design appeared. US based company MOSTEK introduced the MK5020P December, 1972.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS1802 1971 Single chip, Basic unknown Renamed to TMS0102
TMS1875 1972 Single chip, Basic Heathkit IC-2008 Renamed to ???
TMS0101 1972 Single chip, Basic Canon Palmtronic LE-83 +,-,= keys,  8 digits
TMS0102 1972 Single chip, Basic Columbia II [+=],[-=] keys,  8 digits
TMS0103 1972 Single chip, Basic Bowmar 901B [+=],[-=] keys,  8 digits
TMS0105 1972 Single chip, Basic Canon L800 [+=],[-=] keys,  8 digits
TMS0106 1972 Single chip, Basic TI-3500, Canon L100S [+=],[-=] keys,  10 digits, Panaplex
TMS0107 1972 Single chip, Basic Bowmar 901D [+=],[-=] keys,  10 digits
TMS0109 1972 Single chip, Basic TI-3000 [+=],[-=] keys,  8 digits, Panaplex
TMS0110 1972 Single chip, Basic TI-2500 Preseries  +,-,= keys,  8 digits
TMS0111 1972 Single chip, Basic Minimath prototypes  +,-,= keys,  8 digits, LCD
TMS0112 1972 Single chip, Basic Toshiba BC-0802 [+=],-,= keys,  8 digits
TMS0115 1972 Single chip, Basic Panasonic JE-850U +,-,= keys,  8 digits
TMS0118 1972 Single chip, Basic   +,-,= keys,  10 digits
TMS0119 1972 Single chip, Basic TI-2500, Heathkit IC-2108 +,-,= keys,  8 digits

First commercial available single chip scientific calculator

The original single chip calculator was limited to basic calculators. The TMS0120 added to the 8 digit mantissa a two digit exponent display but still uses external display drivers.  

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS0120 1972 Single chip, Sci SR-10 +,-,= keys, x2,1/x,sqr(x), 8+2 digits

Later single chip calculators

There are some later single chip calculators using external drivers for the display. One calculator, the Exactra 20 used only digit drivers, the segment drivers of the calculators were connected directly to the display. The TMS0135 e.g. containes 8192-bit read-only program memory, a 256-bit random-access memory and a decimal arithmetic logic unit as well as control, timing, and output decoders and the segment drivers for the display. This gives an overall complexity of roughly 8800 transistors. 

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS0121 1973 Single chip, Basic Olympia CD101 +,-,= keys, 10 digits
TMS0122 1974 Single chip, Basic Olympia CD80 +,-,= keys, 8 digits
TMS0123 1973 Single chip, Basic   [+=],[-=] keys, x2, sqr(x), 10 digits
TMS0125 1973 Single chip, Basic Canon LE-100 +,-,= keys,  10 digits
TMS0126 1973 Single chip, Basic Canon LE-80R, Commodore 3101, Kings Point EC-8413  [+=],[-=] keys, x2, sqr(x),  8 digits
TMS0127 1973 Single chip, Basic Bowmar MX-80 [+=],[-=] keys, %, 10 digits
TMS0128 1973 Single chip, Basic Canon LE-82, JCE Percent [+=],[-=] keys, %, 8 digits
TMS0130 1973 Single chip, Basic Panasonic JE-860U +,-,= keys, sqr(x), PI
TMS0131 1973 Single chip, Basic Panasonic JE-855U  
TMS0132 1974 Single chip, Basic APF Mark VII, Craig 4510 [+=],- keys, Memory, 8 digits
TMS0135 1974 Single chip, Basic Exactra 20 +,-,= keys, 8 digits
TMS0137 1974 Single chip, Basic Sears 8 +,-,= keys, %, 8 digits
TMS0137 1974 Single chip, Basic Canon Pocketronic II uses Printer chip TMS0641

Chip set for 12 digit calculators

One limitation of the 28-pin packages of the TMS01xx was the maximum number of 10 or 8+2 digits for the results. For desktop calculators Texas Instruments developed chip sets with two 40-pin integrated circuits.    

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS0201 1973 Data chip, Basic TI-4000, Canon L121F, L1210 12 digits, Panaplex
TMS0202 1973 Data chip, Sci SR-20 10+2 digits, Panaplex
TMS0203 1973 Data chip, Basic TI-450, TI-500, TI-620, TEAL 6121D 12 digits, Panaplex
TMS0206 1973 Data chip Olympia CD401A   
TMS0207 1973 Data chip, HEX SR-22 10+2 digits, Panaplex  
TMS0221 1974 Not yet discovered TI-500 Used together with TMS0203
TMS0301 1973 ROM chip, Basic TI-4000 [+=],[-=] keys, Memory, K
TMS0302 1973 ROM chip, Basic Canon L121F [+=],[-=] keys, Memory, K
TMS0304 1973 ROM chip, Sci SR-20 +,-,= keys, x2,1/x,sqr(x),x!,PI,e
TMS0305 1974 ROM chip, Basic TI-500 Printing only
TMS0306 1974 ROM chip, Basic TI-620 Printing only
TMS0318 1973 ROM chip, Basic Olympia CD401A   
TMS0320 1973 ROM chip, Basic TEAL 6121D [+=],[-=] keys, Memory, EX, K,sqr(x)
TMC0321 1973 Two chip, Basic Canon L1210 [+=],[-=] keys, Memory, K,sqr(x)
TMC0322 1973 Two chip, Basic TI-450 [+=],[-=] keys, Memory, K
TMC0323 1973 ROM chip, HEX SR-22  
TMC0404 1973 2nd ROM chip, HEX SR-22   
TMC0406 1974 2nd ROM chip TI-620 Printing only

Chip set for scientifical calculators

With the TMC0501 building blocks Texas Instruments created a novel architecture for scalable scientific calculators. The architecture used minimum a 2 chip design with the Arithmetic chip and the SCOM (scanning read only memory) but was expandable to a maximum of 8 SCOM's, additional RAM as program memory for programmable calculators, additional RAM for general purpose registers and even a chip driving a printer. Most scientific and programmable calculators from Texas Instruments between the years 1974 and 1982 (SR-50..TI-59) use these chips.
 
Abbreviations:

ARITH     Arithmetic chip with 5*16 digits registers, segment scanning and driving
SCOM     Scanning and Read Only Memory with 1k*13 instruction memory and 16*16 digits constants
DSCOM   SCOM with doubled memory capacity of 2.5k*13 instruction memory and 16*16 digits constants
QSCOM   SCOM with fourfold memory capacity
BROM     Bare Read Only Memory with 1k*13 instruction memory
DRAM     External Random Access Memory for user data (memory registers)
PRAM     External Random Access Memory for user programms (key codes) with 1920 bits of read/write memory
PROM     External Read Only Memory for user programms (key codes)
PCHIP     Printer chip

Texas Instruments used the leading designation TMS (Texas Mos Standard) or TMC (Texas Mos Custom) for most chips. The following table uses only the (more common) TMC designations.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC0501 1974 ARITH SR-50(A),51(A),51-II,52,56,
60, TI-5230
10+2 digits
TMC0501E 1979 Enhanced ARITH SR-60A, TI-58(C),TI-59 10+2 digits
TMC0521 1974 SCOM SR-50, SR-50A Basic system: TMC0501 + TMC0521
TMC0522 1974 SCOM1 SR-51, SR-51A Adds statistical functions (ROM) and conversion constants
TMC0523 1974 SCOM2 SR-51, SR-51A
TMC0524 1975 SCOM SR-52  
TMC0526 1976 SCOM SR-60  
TMC0531 1976 SCOM SR-50A Differences to TMC0521 not known
TMC0532 1976 SCOM1 SR-51A Found in late models
TMC0533 1976 SCOM2 SR-51A
TMC0534 1976 SCOM SR-52 Differences to TMC0524 not known
TMC0537 1976 SCOM1 SR-56 Adds statistical functions (ROM) and programmability
TMC0538 1976 SCOM2 SR-56
TMC0561 1975 BROM SR-52, PC-100A  
TMC0562 1975 BROM SR-52 2 chips piggy back in SR-52
TMC0569 1975 BROM PC-100A  
TMC0571 1977 BROM TI-58, TI-59 see TMC0582
TMC0572 1978 BROM TI-5230 see TMC0587
TMC0573 1979 BROM TI-58C see TMC0580
TMC0580
/CD2400
1979 DSCOM TI-58C Instead of TMC0582 on TI-58/59
TMC0580
/CD2401
1979 DSCOM TI-58C Instead of TMC0583 on TI-58/59
TMC0581 1976 DSCOM SR-51-II combines TMC0522 + TMC0523
TMC0582 1977 DSCOM TI-58, TI-59, TI-58C (1), SR-60(A) 2 DSCOM + BROM adds to 6k*13 instruction memory for the TI-59
TMC0583 1977 DSCOM TI-58, TI-59, TI-58C (1), SR-60(A)
TMC0584 1977 DSCOM SR-60(A) Enhanced instructions of SR-60(A)
TMC0587 1978 DSCOM TI-5230 2 DSCOM + BROM adds to 6k*13 instruction memory for the TI-5230
TMC0588 1978 DSCOM TI-5230
TMC0591 1979   TI-58C Interface to S-RAM  
TMC0594 1977 MAGNETIC I/O TI-59 only  
TMC0595 1975 MAGNETIC I/O SR-52 adds programmability to TMC0524
TMC0596 1977 MAGNETIC I/O SR-60A  
TMC0598 1977 PRAM TI-58 (2), TI-59 (4), TI-5230 (7) 240*8 RAM (240 program steps or 30 data registers) each
TMC0599 1975 PRAM SR-52 (2), SR-56 (1), SR-60A (13) 240*8 RAM (240 program steps or 30 data registers) each
TMC0251 1976 Printer PC-100A,B,C Drives PC-100 printer
TMC0253 1976 Display SR-60(A) Drives alphanumeric display
TMC0254 1976 Printer SR-60(A) Drives thermal printer
TMC0255 1978 Printer TI-5230 Drives thermal printer
TMC0261 1976 Display, Printer TI-5040 Single-chip printing calculator
TMC0262 1978 Display, Printer TI-5025 Single-chip printing calculator
TMC0263 1980 Display, Printer TI-5135 Single-chip printing calculator

The TI-58/59 architecture introduced the Solid State Software Modules™ with up to 5000 program steps. On the backside of the TI-58/59 you'll note a small lid with a place for the 8-pin module, view it here.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC0540 1977 PROM -Customer- TI-58(C), TI-59 List of all known ROM-Codes here
TMC0541 1977 PROM -1- TI-58(C), TI-59 Master Library
TMC0542 1977 PROM -2- TI-58(C), TI-59 Applied Statistics
TMC0543 1977 PROM -3- TI-58(C), TI-59 Real Estate Investment
TMC0544 1977 PROM -4- TI-58(C), TI-59 Surveying
TMC0545 1977 PROM -5- TI-58(C), TI-59 Marine Navigation
TMC0546 1977 PROM -6- TI-58(C), TI-59 Aviation
TMC0547 1977 PROM -7- TI-58(C), TI-59 Leisure Library
TMC0548 1977 PROM -8- TI-58(C), TI-59 Securities Analysis
TMC0549 1977 PROM -9- TI-58(C), TI-59 Business Decisions
TMC0550 1977 PROM -10- TI-58(C), TI-59 Math Utilities
TMC0551 1977 PROM -11- TI-58(C), TI-59 Electrical Engineering
TMC0553 1977 PROM -SE- TI-58(C), TI-59 Structural Engineering
TMC0554 1977 PROM -12- TI-58(C), TI-59 Agriculture
TMC0555 1977 PROM -13- TI-58(C), TI-59 RPN Simulator

Second generation single chip calculators 

There are some later single chip calculators using external drivers for the display. They support either a memory or some enhanced scientifical functions.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS0601 1974 Single chip, Basic TI-2550 +,-,= keys, Memory, 8 digits
TMS0602 1973 Single chip, Sci SR-11 +,-,= keys, x2,1/x,sqr(x),PI
TMC0605 1974 Single chip, Basic Canon LE-81M +,-,= keys, ±%, sqr(x), 8 digits
TMS0801 1973 Single chip, Basic Canon LE-84, Sinclair Cambridge +,-,= keys, Constant, 8 digits
TMS0803 1974 Single chip, Basic TI-1500 +,-,= keys, %, 8 digits
TMC0805 1974 Single chip, Sci Sinclair Scientific UPN, log, sin..., 8 digits
TMS0806 1974 Single chip, Basic Exactra 19 +,-,= keys, 6 (8) digits
TMS0807 1974 Single chip, Basic Canon LE-85 [+=],[-=] keys, sqr(x)  8 digits
TMS0833 1974   MBO Expert  
TMS0851 1974   Privileg 804D  
TMS0852 1974 Single chip, Basic TI-150 +,-,= keys, %, 8 digits
TMS0855 1975 Single chip, Basic Canon LD-80, Silver-Reed 8 +,-,= keys, %, sqr(x)
TMS0893 1976? Single chip, Basic Tabulex alpha   

Third generation single chip calculators 

With the TMS1001 Texas Instruments introduced the first member of the famous TMS1000 Microcomputer family. The chip contains a microcomputer complete with a program ROM having 1,024 eight-bit words; a temporary storage RAM: input (from keypad); output (to control keypad scan and LED display); and an oscillator (clock). The TMS1000 chip was designed to span a range of hand-held calculator products (from four-function up through simple memory calculators). Since the chip had to be customized with the ROM program appropriate to a product, other programmable features were included to improve the chip's flexibility. Today we know 13 different chips used in TI single-chip calculators. These chips vary in implementation technology, number of I/O lines, display drive, amount of ROM (up to 26.6 Kbit) and amount of RAM (up to 1280 bits). Calculator applications range from simple four-function calculators to the 50-step programmable TI-57. As of mid 1979, over 35 million TMS 1000 chips were used in both calculator and noncalculator applications, establishing the TMS1000 as the computerarchitecture with the largest installed base. The internal clock rate varies from 200 to 450 KHz, depending on technology.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS1001 1974 Single chip, Sci SR-16 Full scientific (w/o trig), 8+2 digits
TMC1014/1214       TI-5050  
ZA0535 1975 Single chip, Sci Canon F-2 Full scientific, 8+2 digits
TMS1016 1975 Single chip, Sci SR-16-II Full scientific (w/o trig), 8+2 digits
TMS1042   Single chip, Basic Olympia CD45A, Canon LD-8Ms  
TMS1043 1975 Single chip, Basic TI-2550-III +,-,= keys, %, x2,1/x,sqr(x)
TMS1044     Unisonic 1040  
TMS1045   Single chip, Basic  Toshiba BC-8111B, BC-8112SL, Canon L813, F-31 +,-,= keys, %, x2,1/x,sqr(x)
TMS1071 1975 Single chip, Basic TI-2550-II, Homeland 8105 +,-,= keys, %, x2,1/x,sqr(x)
TMS1073 1976 Single chip, Basic TI-5100, Toshiba BC-1015  
TMS1079 1979 Single chip, Basic Canon MD-8 Two-line display, 8+8 digits
TMS1115 1976 Single chip, Printing TI-5050M  
TMS1273 1976 Single chip, Basic Toshiba BC1270 [+=],[-=] keys, Memory, K,sqr(x), 12 digits
TMC1278 1976  Single chip, Basic TI-5200   
TMC1309 1977  Single chip, Printing TI-5220 Drives thermal printhead
TMC1312 1977  Single chip, Printing TI-5225 Drives thermal printhead
TMC1372 1977  Single chip, Printing TI-5220, TI-5225 (ZA0396) Drives VF-Display
TMC1376 1977  Single chip, Printing TI-5230 Drives VF-Display
ZA0552 1976 Single chip, Basic Canon L1010, LD-10M 10 digits
ZA0571 1976 Single chip, Basic Adman L-0830T %, K, 8 digits

With the TI-1200 and TI-1250 calculators Texas Instruments introduced March, 1975 the first calculators using a real single chip design. The 8 digit LED-display and 8*4 matrix keyboard are connected directly to the integrated circuit and the whole system is powered by a single 9V battery.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMS0952 1975 Single chip, Basic TI-1200, TI-1250 +,-,= keys, Memory, sign + 8 digits
TMS0954 1976 Single chip, Basic TI-1260 +,-,= keys, Memory, conversions
TMS0972 1976 Single chip, Basic TI-1250, National 835A (!) 8 digits, minor changes to TMS0952
TMS0974 1976 Single chip, Basic TI-1270 +,-,= keys, x2,1/x,sqr(x),PI, 8 digits
TMS0975 1976 Single chip, Toy Little Professor  

Shortly before the introduction of the C-MOS technology in the year 1978 some chip-size optimized architectures appeared. Find more details in the description of the TMS1000 Microcomputer family

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC0907 1977 Toy Wiz-A-Tron  
TMC0921 1977 Single chip, Basic TI-1050 +,-,= keys, Memory, srq(x), %
TMC0923 1977 Single chip, Basic TI-1025 +,-,= keys, Memory, %
TMC1981 1977 Single chip, Basic TI-1680 uses TMC0999
TMC1982 1977 Toy TI Dataman  
TMC1983 1978 Single chip, Sci TI-45 Full scientific, 8 (5+2) digits
TMC1984 1978 Toy Spelling B (original) uses TMC0272
TMC1986 1980 Toy Math Marvel  
TMC1991 1977 Single chip, Basic TI-1000 +,-,= keys, %
TMC1992 1977 Single chip, Basic TI-1000 Version 2 +,-,= keys, %

In the year 1976, with the SR-40 and TI-30 the first scientifical calculators using a real single chip design were introduced. These calculators used a 8 digit LED-display, too. In 1977 the display size was expanded to 8+2 digits.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC0980 1978 Custom design Goulds Pumpulator ROM code CD9801
TMC0981 1976 Single chip, Sci TI-30, SR-40 Full scientific, 8 (5+2) digits
TMC0982 1976 Single chip, Fin Business Analyst Full financial, 8 (5+2) digits
TMC0983  1978 Single chip, HEX TI Programmer HEX calculator, ROM code ZA0675
TMC0984 1976 Single chip, Sci TI-33 Full scientific, 3 mem., 8 (5+2) digits
TMC0985 1977 Single chip, Sci OEM Full scientific, no AOS, 8 (5+2) digits

In 1977 the display size of the single chip scientific calculators was expanded to 10+2 digits. Together with a huge memory these chips have transistor counts of roughly 30,000 elements.
Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC1501 1977 Single chip, Sci TI-57 Programmable Full scientific, programm.,8+2 digits
TMC1502 1977 Single chip, Fin The MBA Full financial, huge mem.,8+2 digits
TMC1503 1977 Single chip, Sci TI-55 Full scientific, huge mem.,8+2 digits

In the year 1978 Texas Instruments invented the synthesizer technology to reproduce human speech with tuned voices stored in ROM's (integrated circuits) and created the Speak & Spell. Get more infromation about the synhesizer chips and their Speech-ROM's here. The first products used specialized calculator chips of the TMS1000 family to manage keyboard and display of the product.

The derivates were either numbered like TMC0271, TMC0272... or got a CD (Custom Design) number, e.g. CD2702.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TMC0271 1978 Toy Speak & Spell (1978)  
TMC0272 1978 Toy Spelling B (UK) Uses TMC1984
TMC0273 1980 Toy Mr. Challenger  
TMC0274 1978 Toy Spelling B  
TMC0270/CD2702 1980 Toy La dictee magique  
TMC0270/CD2705 1980 Toy Speak & Read  
TMC0270/CD2708 1980 Toy Speak & Math (UK)  

First generation C-MOS single chip calculators 

In 1978 Texas Instruments introduced the first C-MOS calculator chips based on the TMS1000 Microcomputer family. The TP0320 architecture is similar to the TMC0980 chips introduced two years earlier for the TI-30 calculator. The main difference – beside the manufacturing process – is the permanent connection of the internal memory (64*13 bits RAM) to the supply voltage. This feature allowed the „Constant Memory“ found on the calculators based on the TP0320 family like the TI-50 or TI-53. Even after you turn off the calculator its user memory is stored inside the chip. The supply current is low enough to buffer the memory more than a year from two small button cells. The program memory with 2k*9 bits ROM allowed the conversion of most calculating features known from Majestic calculators (Scientifical, Statistical and Financial calculator or even Flight computers).

Remember that the first LCD-calculators sold by Texas Instruments used foreign calculator chips manufactured by Toshiba. Get more information about them here.

Together with the C-MOS process the employees of Texas Instruments changed the nomenclature of the chips. Instead of the leading characters TMS (Texas Mos Standard) or TMC (Texas Mos Custom) the abbreviation TP appeared for the new device families. These Microcomputers got both ROM programmability and Gate programmability (e.g. segment decoder). The derivates were either numbered like TP0320, TP0321... or got a CD (Custom Design) number, e.g. CD3202.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TP0320/CD3201 1978 Single chip, Fin TI Investment Analyst  Full financial, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0320/CD3202 1980 Single chip, Fin TI-30-II, TI-30 LCD Full scientific, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0321 1978 Single chip, Sci TI-50 Full scientific, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0322 1978 Single chip, Fin TI Business Analyst II Full financial, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0323 1978 Single chip, Sci TI-53 Full scientific, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0324 1978 Single chip, Sci TI-35 Full scientific, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0326 1979 Single chip, Sci TI-38, TI-20 TI-35 w/o statistics
TP0327 1979 Single chip, Sci Sharp EL-503 Reduced keyboard, 8 (5+2) digits
TP0328 1980 Flight Computer Jeppesen avstar Conversions and calculations

Simplified C-MOS single chip calculators 

During the calculator war (about 1976 to 1978) a lot of customized chip architectures apperaed even from Texas Instruments. Instead using the TMS1000 device with the large ROM and RAM amount some „area optimized“ architectures appeared. Don’t forget that in the early days of IC-Technology the yield of designs with some thousands of transistors was poor ! The TP0310 introduced in the year 1978 based on the serial architecture of the TMS0920 optimized for the TMS1050 calculator. This was the most compact design with only 511*9 bits ROM and 40*5 bits RAM using a one-bit serial adder. Only few calculators make use of the TP0310 devices.

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TP0311 1978 Single chip, Basic TI-1030 +,-,= keys, Memory, srq(x), %
TP0314 1978 Single chip, Basic TI-1070 +,-,= keys, Memory, x2,1/x,sqr(x),PI

Enhanced C-MOS calculator chips 

The TP0320 architecture with only 28 pin housings, 2k*9 bits ROM and 64*13 bits RAM limited calculator designs to simple Scientifical (TI-50), Statistical (TI-35) and Financial (Business Analyst II) calculators driving displays with only 8 digits (or 5 digits + 2 exponents) resolution. The "programmable" TI-53 stored as much as 32 key entries in the memory, that’s it!

Texas Instruments introduced with the TP0455 architecture a new design to overcome these limitations. It is still based on the TMS1000 architecture but added time-keeping capabilities and a more flexible display driver. The TP0455 is still gate-programmable. The first use of the TP0455 was the CD4501 design found in the Time Card introduced end of the year 1981. The TI-55 II demostrated the flexibilty of the TP0455 architecture, two chips formed a powerful Master-Slave architecture. The Master uses a 40pin housing and scans the keyboard, drives a huge display with 8+2 digits and performs the math capabilities. The Slave in the well known 28pin housing doubles the memory capacity of the calculator. This allows e.g. 56 programm steps compared to the 32 steps of the TI-53. The TP0455 design was soon replaced with the TP0456 and most designs were converted. The CD numbers were incremented 50 units to distinguish the difference between TP0455 (e.g. CD4515) and TP0456 e.g. CD4565). The TP0456 seems to be upward compatible to the TP0320, we know with the TI-30LCD resp- TI-30-II a calculator using either the CD3202 or CD4565 design.

We assume that the CD46xx nomenclature was used for original TP0456 designs, they were discovered mainly in educational toys.

The next step in the enhanced C-MOS architectures could be found in the TP0458 architecture. These chips with the CD48xx nameplate use always a 40pin housing and hold twice the RAM amount compared to the TP0456. In conjunction with the Master-Slave architecture some powerful calculators like the TI-62 Galaxy or TI-65 appeared with as much as 112 programming steps or 16 data memories and even timer functions. Single chip designs were discovered in „display intensive“ products like the TI-30 Galaxy or the rare BA-III.

With the introduction of the TP0458 we could close the history of calculator chips manufactured by Texas Instruments. The years between 1967 and 1982 brought us a lot of exciting calculator architectures driven by

Technology (early steps with multi-chip designs)
Flexibility (TMS1000 architecture)
Cost Price (serial architectures)
Development Costs (TP0456 architecture)

Later calculator developments based mostly on Toshiba calculator chips, Texas Instruments dropped their own business with the TMS1000 and concentrated on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) chips. Once again TI is a leading supplier in commercial products, most mobile phones use their DSP-architecture nowadays.
Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TP0455/CD4501C 1981 Single chip, Basic Time Card not yet discovered
TP0455/CD4505A 1981 Dual chip, Sci TI-55 II Slave Full scientific, 56 steps
TP0455/CD4506A 1981 Dual chip, Sci TI-55 II Master Full scientific, 56 steps
TP0455/CD4507B 1981 Single chip, Sci TI-35, TI-40 Replaces TP0324
TP0455/CD4508C 1982 Single chip, Clock TI-2000 (Time Manager) Full Alarm Clock
TP0455/CD4509B 1982 Single chip TI-1890 (Converter) US/ISO converter
TP0455/CD4511A 1982 Single chip CA-800 Cassette Interface for TI-88
TP0455/CD4512 1982 Dual chip AC-II Master not yet discovered
TP0455/CD4513 1982 Dual chip AC-II Slave not yet discovered
TP0455/CD4514B 1982 Single chip TI-2001GTI Car computer 
TP0455/CD4515 1982 Single chip, Sci TI-30 LCD Replaces TP0320-2
TP0455/CD4518 1982 Single chip CMF not yet discovered
TP0455/CD4519 1982 Single chip LCD Programmer base-8 and base-16 calculator
TP0456/CD4551 1981 Dual chip, Sci TI-54 Master Scientific with complex numbers
TP0456/CD4553 1983 Dual chip, Fin BA-54, BA-55 Full financial, 40 steps
TP0456/CD4554 1983 Dual chip, Fin BA-54, BA-55 Full financial, 40 steps
TP0456/CD4555 1981 Dual chip, Sci TI-54, TI-55II, TI-57 LCD Slave Full scientific
TP0456/CD4556 1981 Dual chip, Sci TI-55 II Master Full scientific, 56 steps
TP0456/CD4557 1982 Single chip, Sci TI-35 Replaces TP0324
TP0456/CD4557A 1986 Single chip, Sci TI-30 Stat Replaces TP0324
TP0456/CD4558A 1982 Single chip, Clock TI-2000 (Time Manager) Full Alarm Clock
TP0456/CD4559A 1982 Single chip TI-1890 (Converter) US/ISO converter
TP0456/CD4560 1982 Single chip TI-?? not yet discovered
TP0456/CD4561D 1982 Single chip CA-800 Cassette Interface for TI-88
TP0456/CD4562 1982 Dual chip AC-II Master not yet discovered
TP0456/CD4563 1982 Dual chip AC-II Slave not yet discovered
TP0456/CD4564 1982 Single chip TI-2001GTI Car computer 
TP0456/CD4565 1982 Single chip, Sci TI-30 LCD, TI-30 III Replaces TP0320-2
TP0456/CD4566 1982 Single chip Microwave Controller Oops
TP0456/CD4568 1982 Single chip CMF not yet discovered
TP0456/CD4569 1982 Single chip LCD Programmer base-8 and base-16 calculator
TP0456/CD4570 1982 Single chip LCD Little Professor Educational toy
TP0456/CD4571 1982 Single chip, Fin BA-35 Full financial
TP0456/CD4572 1982 Dual chip, Sci TI-57 LCD Master Full scientific, 40 steps
TP0456/CD4573 1983 Dual chip PC-200 Printer for TI-66 and BA-55
TP0456/CD4574 1983 Dual chip PC-200 Printer for TI-66 and BA-55
TP0456/CD4614 1986 Dual chip, Sci TI-60 Slave Full scientific, 84 steps
TP0456/CD4616 1986 Single chip MathStar Educational toy
TP0456/CD4617 1987 Dual chip TI Spelling B Educational toy
TP0456/CD4618 1987 Dual chip TI Spelling B Educational toy
TP0456/CD4631 1989 Single chip Math...ToGo!, Professor 1.2.3 Educational toy
TP0456/CD4632 1989 Single chip Time...ToGo!, Professor Time Educational toy
TP0456/CD4633 1989 Single chip Words...ToGo! Educational toy
TP0456/CD4634 1989 Single chip Professor ABC Educational toy
TP0458/CD4805 1987 Dual chip, Sci TI-65 Slave Full scientific, 100 steps, Timer
TP0458/CD4806 1987 Dual chip, Sci TI-65 Master Full scientific, 100 steps, Timer
TP0458/CD4808 1986 Dual chip, Sci TI-30 Galaxy Full scientific
TP0458/CD4810 1986 Dual chip, Sci TI-62 Galaxy Master Full scientific, 100 steps
TP0458/CD4811 1986 Dual chip, Sci TI-62 Galaxy Slave Full scientific, 100 steps
TP0458/CD4812 1987 Single chip, Fin BA-III Full financial
TP0458/CD4815 1986 Dual chip, Sci TI-60 Master Full scientific, 84 steps
TP0458/CD4816 1988 Single chip, Sci Galaxy Junior Educational calculator

Failed C-MOS single chip calculators 

If you dig deep into the calculator related patents filed by Texas Instruments and know about the mystery TI-88 calculator you’ll discover two additional devices:

TP0485 with CD2901,CD2902 and CD2903
TP0530, TP0531 and TP0532 with CD5402 and CD5403

Unfortunately we don’t know much about them. The patent application is centered around a „Data processing system integrated circuit having modular memory add-on capacity“ and describes a TMS1000 chip with different slice-lines to produce area-otimized chips with adoptable memory size. According to the patent the ROM-size varies between 1k words and 4k words, the RAM-size seems to be between 56 and 224 bytes.

The inside view of a TI-88 gives you some chips but without destroying the calculator we aren’t able to reengineer it. One question is still open: Where are the 960 programming steps of a TI-88 stored ? It’s a pity that the TI-88 never got the final approval for production...

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
TP0485/CD2901C 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0485/CD2901D 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0485/CD2902C 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0485/CD2903 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0530 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0531 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0532/CD5402A 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered
TP0532/CD5403A 1982 Multi chip, Sci TI-88 not yet discovered

Display drivers

Before the real single-chip calculators appeared the LED displays were connected to digit drivers and on the first designs to additional segment drivers. 

Type Year Function Calculator Comments
SN75491 1972 4 segment driver TI-2500 Introduced with the TMS0102
SN75492 1972 6 digit driver TI-2500 Introduced with the TMS0102
SN75493 1972 4 segment driver SR-10 aka SN27422, SN27915
SN75494 1972 6 digit driver SR-10 aka SN27423, SN27914
SN75497 1974 7 digit driver SR-50 aka SN27882
SN75498 1974 9 digit driver    

 

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If you have additions to the above article please email: joerg@datamath.org.

© Juergen Dobrinski and Joerg Woerner, January 13, 2001. No reprints without written permission.