Additional Pictures 


The upper part of the Galixa Piezo housing holds not tonly the calculator and loudspeaker but even
an array of 10 refreshable Braille cells. 

The Braille cells use 8 pins per character instead the 6 pins found in the early products.  

One of the 10 Braille cells.

The Braille cells uses an ASIC with some switching transistors to apply a high voltage of about 200V DC to each of 
the 8 bending type Piezo actuators.  Simply by bending the Piezo stick each of the white plastic pins is moved 
towards the finger tip of the user. 

horizontal rule

If you have additions to the above article please email:

Joerg Woerner, December 22, 2002. No reprints without written permission.