DATAMATH  CALCULATOR  MUSEUM

Featured companies

The Datamath Calculator Museum reflects mainly on products from the US based company Texas Instruments. To round off the exhibition you will find products manufactured by Texas Instruments and sold under different badges, too. Just the same things happens with products developed by other companies and sold by Texas Instruments. Another part of the museum gives an overview of important products in the calculator history influenced by Texas Instruments. If you have additions to the description of the companies please send an email to: joerg@datamath.org.   

Aristo

Hamburg (Germany) located company Dennert & Pape started already in the year 1872 the business with slide rules. About 100 years later they introduced under the trademark ARISTO with the model M27 their first electronic pocket calculator.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Best Buy

Best Buy Co.,Inc. was founded in 1966 by Richard M. Schulz in Saint Paul, Minnesota as an audio speciality store. In 1983 they started expansion under the new corporare name "Best Buy Co., Inc." hitting $1 billion revenues in 1992. Today Best Buy, often called the "big blue box" is the largest retailer for consumer electronics in the United States and Canada, accounting in 2008 for more than 20% of the market. In Canada most stores are operated under the Future Shop label. 
In 2008 Best Buy started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors. e.g. the TI-30X IIS in pink and TI-84 Plus SE in blue. 

Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Bowmar

The Bowmar Instrument Corp. was formed in Fort Wayne in 1951 by Edward and Joan White. He earlier had been head of the electron-mechanical section of the Farnsworth Television Co. At first a one-employee operation in a barn loft at Smith Field, the company grew to 30 employees by 1953, and by 1957 had expanded to occupy the site of today's operation on Bluffton Road.
In 1971, the company introduced the first hand-held calculator called the "Bowmar Brain." The technology developed at Bowmar, which included the familiar red "LED" (Light Emitting Diode) readouts, enabled American business to regain from the Japanese the lead in calculator electronics.
As it turned out, Bowmar lost the calculator in the marketplace because it was unprepared for the huge popularity of the new item. Borrowing heavily to increase production and determined not to use cheaper foreign labor, Bowmar found itself unable to compete in the calculator price wars of the mid-1970s. In addition, the Bowmar product was hurt by having to deal with its chief rival, Texas Instruments, for basic components - many of which, it later was learned, were defective or held up in delivery. Bowmar, like ITT and Magnavox of Fort Wayne, withdrew from the consumer market and has concentrated instead on government and industrial contracts.
The company White Electronic Designs Corp. was formed in 1998 through the merger of Bowmar Instrument Corporation (White Microelectronics) and Electronic Designs, Inc., inheriting a legacy of sixty years in electronics manufacturing.
Michael Hawfield, Reprinted by permission from The News-Sentinel, Fort Wayne, Indiana and Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Busicom Corp.

Busicom was the brand name used for calculators made by Nippon Calculating Machine Corporation of Japan, one of the first companies to enter the pocket calculator market. In 1967 the Nippon Calculating Machine Corp changed its name to Business Computer Corporation, better known as Busicom Corp.
That time, Busicom was manufacturing mechanical and electronic desktop calculators, selling Mitsubishi mainframe computers, developing operating systems and application software for Mitsubishi, and importing business computers from France. Busicom calculators were sold in the United States under NCR’s trade name and were also exported to Europe and other parts of Asia.
Busicom had two factories manufacturing calculators – Osaka’s Nippon Calculating Machine Corporation, manufacturing small-business machines in high volume, and Tokyo’s Electro Technical Industries Corporation, manufacturing scientific calculators and specialized office equipment such as billing machines and teller machines. In 1969, shortly after competitor Sharp introduced the QT-8D calculator using Rockwell’s large-scale integration (LSI) chips, Busicom settled on two U.S. semiconductor partners, Mostek and Intel, and two design strategies. Mostek was contracted to provide the LSI technology for the small-business calculators built in Osaka. Intel was contracted to provide the integrated circuits for the products manufactured in the Tokyo factory. Starting in April 1971, Busicom began the manufacture of calculators and other products based on the Intel chipset, known as the I4004 family. Sales reached tens of thousands.
Already in 1974 Busicom in Japan became the first major Japanese company in the calculator industry to fail. 

William Aspray and Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Cal-Comp Electronics

Cal-Comp Electronics (Thailand) was established 1989 by Kinpo Electronics, Inc. for OEM-production of electronic goods. Main customers are Canon, Sharp and Texas Instruments. Cal-Comp manufactured between 1989 and about 1998 most LC-calculators in the TI-line.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Canon Inc.

Canon was founded in 1933 in Tokyo by Goro Yoshida, a passionate camera-lover, and his brother-in-law, Saburo Uchida. Their aim was to make cameras that could compete with the German models that were considered the most advanced of the day. More than 25 years later Canon developed the Synchroreader, a completely new magnetic recording-playback system and a recording medium based on a magnetic surface and head. Even before its release, it won strong recognition as a new media system permitting printed matter to be read while listening to played-back sound. 
In 1962, Canon seriously considered entering the business machines market. The electrical engineers who had been working on the development of the Synchroreader were casting around for a new field, and a plan emerged to apply computer technology to the electro-mechanical calculators around at the time. The development took two years and in 1964 the prototype received a very positive reception at a business show and was eventually launched as the Canola 130. Compared with full-key products launched around the same time, the Canola 130 was easy to use and proved very popular. Unfortunately, Sharp, which exhibited at the same business show, launched a 10-key product immediately after the show. Canon took time to launch its product, and thus forfeited the honor of marketing the world's first desktop calculator. Few years later Canon Inc. developed the famous Pocketronic based on TI's Cal-Tech project and their patents.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Casio Computer Co., Ltd

Casio Computer Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, is one of the leading consumer electronics companies in the world. Since ist establishment in 1957, Casio has been active not only in the development of electronic calculators but also in electronic timepieces and musical instruments.
Casio Computer Co., Ltd. was got it start by developing all-electric compact calculator. Company founder Tadao Kashio, originally an engineer specializing in fabrication technology, founded Kashio Seisansho in April, 1946 after work experience that included plants manufacturing products for the military. Kashio Seisakujo manufactured aircraft parts and other products. Toshio, the founder's brother suggested that the company work on developing a calculator. Tadao worked together with his three younger brothers and launched the efforts aimed at producing a calculator.
Most calculators at that time were electrical devices, in which electrical power was used to drive internal gears. The four Kashio brothers, however, adapted the relay elements used for telephone switching equipment to develop the compact, all-electric calculator. The new calculator did not rely on mechanical movements such as gears. The launch of the initial Model 14-A was in June 1957, which also marked the establishment of Casio Computer Co., Ltd.
Since those beginnings, CASIO has continued to be a leader in pioneering new calculator products for the office, as well as for scientific and technical applications. The September 1965 release of the transistor-based Model 001 marked the beginning of a new era when calculators became small enough to fit on the desk top. It was also the time when the term "electronic calculator" became part of the standard vocabulary. As products became even smaller, they became a familiar sight in offices throughout the world.
However, calculators were still priced outside the reach of the individual consumer at this time, so Kazuo Kashio, who was in charge of marketing, made it a goal of the company to produce a calculator that could be afforded by the individual consumer. The result came in August 1972 with the release of the palm-size CASIO Mini, which was promoted by a television commercial that helped to catch the attention of the public. The CASIO Mini soon took the market by storm, and made the calculator part of our everyday lives. Only two years later in May 1974 with the fx-10 the first scientific calculator entered the market and with the CQ-1 end of 1976 the first calculator with integrated electronic watch appeared.
The digital technology that was made available through the development of CASIO calculators was applied to miniaturization, fueling the company's move into a new sector. In November 1975, CASIO released the Casiotron, a digital watch capable of displaying the year, month, date, hour, minute, and second. The Casiotron was even able to automatically make adjustments for months of different length. The development of the Casiotron was based on the unique CASIO concept of, "time is a continuous process of addition".
January 1980 saw the release of the Casiotone 201, an electronic musical instrument that produced sound generated by digital calculation.
Casio Computer Co., Ltd.

Columbia Scientific

Columbia Scientific of Santa Monica, CA sold only few calculators in the early 1970's. Most of them were assembled in Korea but based on US technology.
Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm, Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators

Commodore Business Machines Ltd.

Commodore was founded by Jack Tramiel in October 1958 as Commodore Portable Typewriter Co Ltd, Canada. In four years Commodore went successfully from assembling and marketing mechanical typewriters and adding machines to their electromechanical counterparts. 
In February 1962 Tramiel changed the company's name to Commodore Business Machines Ltd.
Impressed by early electronic calculators Commodore contracted Casio and others to manufacture calculators for the North American market. The first were introduced in 1968 and sales and profits increased rapidly. The next year they began manufacturing calculators based around chips made by Texas Instruments, and two years later they introduced the C106, the first mass-market compact electronic calculator. In 1973 they opened manufacturing plants in Palo Alto, California, in Virginia, and in Eaglescliff, UK.
© http://hammer.prohosting.com/~penz/home.htm

Compal Electronics

Compal Electronics was established in 1984 and designs and manufactures electronic products both in Taiwan and China. In 2002 workforce was about 9000 employees strong. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Compex

Cal-Comp Electronics sold some of the manufcatured OEM calculators under its own Compex brand. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Compucorp

Compucorp, a marketing division of Computer Design Corporation roots back to Wyle Laboratories, of El Segundo, California. A group of engineers started already mid of the 60s with the development of a programmable electronic calculator. Nevertheless it was a very capable machine the managment of Wyle Laboratories decided to stop further development of the machine. A group of engineers started their own business, the Computer Design Corporation. Without any marketing knowledge or sales organization the company decided to sell calculator designs instead of manufacturing calculators. In a first step the engineers started the design of a flexible calculator architecture based on microprogrammed logic to solve different calculating applications  with one base design. The first customer of the design was the US company Monroe and a complete series of high-end calculators appears under the Monroe label using the first-generation chip set. The main difference between the calculators was the microprogramm.
Early in the year 1971 the Compucorp division was founded to sell ist own line of calculators. The first series of Compucorp calculators, the 100-series used the same chip set as the Monroe products. Some 20 different calculators were reported within the 100-series. At the same time the design of the second-generation „ACL“ chip set started and led to the 200-series desktop calculators and 300-series portable calculators. The „ACL“ chip set was fabricated by AMD, but later, Texas Instruments was added as a second source. Both lines of calculators generated again some 30 different calculating machines with just two base designs. The success of the chip set ended with the introduction of the highend 400-series, more a computer system than a calculator.
Later in the year 1971 the first single chip calculator designs appeared from both MOSTEK and Texas Instruments. Starting as basic four function calculators they changed the calculator market dramatically. Within month a lot of companies like Bowmar, Corvus and even Texas Instruments introduced cheap pocket calculators with rechargable batteries. Within two years calculators like the HP-35 and SR-50 raised the pressure on Computer Design Corporation and the shut down began. Already in the year 1975 Compucorp was history.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum, based on the wonderful article „The History of Compucorp“ by Rick Bensene.

Cómputo Numérica

Cómputo Numérica of Mexico was the first online store specialized in calculators in Latin America and has been offering tutorials for the Voyage 200 calculator on YouTube since 2008. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Corvus

Corvus Corporation, the consumer division of the famous IC manufacturer Mostek Corp.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Craig Electronics

Craig Electronics of Compton, Calfornia was a major distributor of stereo equipment and other consumer electronics in the 1960's. Their calculators were usually US and Japanese OEM-products with the Craig stickers on it.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Faber Castell

A.W. Faber-Castell, a German manufacturer of slide rules, introduced in the year 1973 the „TR1 Calculator Slide Rule“. One side of the housing featured an electronic calculator and the other side a traditional slide rule.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Franklin Quest

Franklin Quest Co., the world leader in time management training seminars and maker of the Franklin Day Planner® system, released in 1994 a special version of the PS-9500 Organizer. FranklinCovey, based in West Valley City, Utah, was formed on May 30, 1997 as a result of an acquisition by Franklin Quest of Stephen R. Covey's Covey Leadership Center.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Fred Meyer

Fred Meyer, Inc. is a chain of hypermarkets founded in 1922 in Portland, Oregon by Fred G. Meyer. In May 1999 Fred Meyer, Inc. merged with Kroger of Cincinnati, Ohio but the stores are still branded Fred Meyer.
In 2009 Fred Meyer started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors and introduced the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition and TI-30XIIS in maroon and pink.

Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Garrett Comtronics Corporation

Garrett Comtronics Corporation of San Diego, CA was a subsidary of the Garrett Corporation, one of the Signal Companies.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Goulds

Goulds Pumps boasts a proud tradition of supplying quality pumping products to the global industrial markets for over 150 years. Goulds is the dominant brand worldwide with over a million installed process pumps in service. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Group Sense (International) Limited

Group Sense (International) Limited was established in Hong Kong. Groupe Sense designs and manufactures a wide range of information and educational products including electronic personal Chinese dictionaries, electronic multi-lingual translators, LCD hand-held games, electronic personal organizers, computer products, and educational toys. In 1998 Nam Tai Electronics, Inc. bought 20% of the company shares.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Hand Held Products

Hand Held Products was founded in1972 and manufactured memory expansion modules for both Hewlett Packard and Texas Instruments. Since then HHP grew to the leading provider of data collection systems for mobile and wireless applications. In 2000 HHP was merged with Welch Allyn, a leader and innovator in medical and dental diagnostics.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Handy Tech

Handy Tech Elektronik GmbH, Horb (Germany) was founded in 1994 by Mr. Siegfried Kipke and traces back to Schoenherr GmbH founded already in 1974. The product range includes classic Braille displays, modular Braille displays, talking blood pressure gauges, talking calculators, and the distribution of reading systems and CCTVs. In 2001 the company employs 42 people, about a third of them are blind or visually impaired.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Heathkit

Around the year 1900 Ed Heath founded the Heath Aeroplane Company and developed light planes. Starting 1926 the first kit – an airplane – was available. Ed Heath was killed 1931 during a test flight and the bankrupt Heath company was purchased by Howard Anthony. After WWII Heath company started selling surplus electronics and Anthony began to explore the idea of offering test equipment in kit form - an idea he had thought about years earlier. He subcontracted the scope's design, scribbles a few simple instructions on how to assemble it, and buys an ad in the August 1947 issue of Electronics magazine. Over the years Heath developed and sold hundreds of kit products.

In the year 1972 Heathkit introduced with the IC-2008 their first electronic calculator in kit form. Some more products followed but early far-east calculators dropped the selling prices below manufacturing costs.

For almost 30 years Heathkit could do no wrong. But by the mid 70's the weight of change was beginning to press on Heath with increasing discomfort. Technology was beginning to cycle so quickly Heath could hardly keep up. Halfway through a project, for example, Heath could find itself working on a outmoded idea. And as if that weren't enough, off-shore manufacturers were becoming seriously competitive. Then, in 1979, Zenith bought Heath. What at first glance appeared to be a great relationship quickly turned catastrophic. Zenith was interested only in Heath's computer products and began to siphon off huge quantities of cash and other resources to pursue its own agenda. Then came the layoffs and a deadly plunge in morale. In addition to the internal problems, there were major shifts going on outside. Heath's original customer base was aging, and younger folks seemed to have neither the time or inclination to assemble kits. The age of instant gratification had arrived. All of these forces--and others--conspired to submerged Heath below crush-depth. 
Joerg Woerner based on an article from Chuck Penson.  

Hewlett-Packard

Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard founded the well known company Hewlett-Packard or HP already in the year 1939 and started with an audio oscillator for test and measurement purposes. In the year 1968 HP introduces the world's first desktop scientific calculator, the HP 9100A. In the same year they developed the first commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) found in the later electronic pocket calculators. Only 4 years later, spring 1972, HP makes another advance in personal computing with the HP-35, the world's first scientific handheld calculator. Today HP products are still known for their innovation and quality.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Ibico

Ibico AG was founded on October 29, 1969 in Zurich, Switzerland to manufacture and distribute electronic products like office machines. The company was liquidated on January 30, 2004.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Indústrias Gerais da Amazonia S.A.

Indústrias Gerais da Amazonia manufactured in the Manaus Free Zone different calculators like the rare SR-40 LCD under license of Texas Instruments. Due to various barriers to trade most foreign companies established in Brazil some kind of off-shore production. Already in 1957 by parliamentary initiative the "Zona France de Manaus" was created in the Municipality of Manaus, State of Amazonas: the Geographic Center of the Western Brazilian Amazon. Grounded on federal, state and municipal fiscal incentives, the project included the creation of an industrial, commercial and agricultural and cattle raising center. Today there are more than 600 industries, using competetive technology in the production of electro-electronic, computer science, professional equipment, photocopiers, telephone receivers, fax, and telecommunications used all over Brazil.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Inventec Corporation 

Inventec Corporation was founded  in Taiwan, on July 1, 1975 to produce simple calculators and telephone sets. In 1984 Inventec was Taiwan's largest manufacturer of calculators. In the year 1986 an overseas manufacturing base was founded in Penang, Malaysia to take advantage of competitive labour rates. Inventec Micro-Electronics Corporation (IMC), one of the Inventec Group companies, established a factory in Shanghai, China during 1995. Inventec manufactures most of  Texas Instrument’s graphing calculators from the TI-73 to the TI-89 and the data collection systems CBL2 and CBR. IMC was renamed IME after Inventec group's reorganization in 1999. 
In 2004, Inventec Group further expanded in China by establishing Inventec Pudong Campus in Shanghai Caohejing Export Processing Zone with a total investment exceeding US$ 420 million. The Campus will eventually house one R&DCenter, one logistics center and eight factories. The Pudong Campus serves not only the domestic market in China, but also the worldwide market.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

JCE (John Collins Enterprises) 

JCE (John Collins Enterprises) located in Palo Alto, CA developed and manufactured only few portable electronic calculators around 1972. All known models (JCE Mark II, Percent, Super D) use the famous Texas Instruments Klixon™ keypad and sport huge 8-digit LED displays. JCE went out of the calculator business some time in 1973 to 1974. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

J.C. Penney 

J.C. Penney Company, Inc. began in 1902 when James Cash Penney opened his first retail store, called the Golden Rule Store, in the mining town of Kemmerer, Wyoming. Today the company consist of approximately 1,075 JCPenney Department stores in all 50 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. In the 70's JCPenney sold rebadged calculators manufactured by APF, Commodore, Corvus and some Japanese brands through their catalogues.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Jeppesen Sanderson 

Jeppesen Sanderson Inc. offers a complete selection of flight information and flight planning services, aviation weather services, maintenance information, pilot training systems and pilot supplies. Some of their flight computers were based on calculators manufactured by Texas Instruments. On Aug. 15, 2000 the Boeing Company had announced that it agreed to acquire Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., the world's leading provider of flight information services, from Tribune Company for $1.5 billion in cash. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Kinpo Electronics, Inc. 

Kinpo Electronics, Inc. started business already in 1973 and established itself as a front runner in Taiwan's electronics industry. The product lines cover the 3C consumer products (Calculators, Cordless and Computers) and most of the customers are well known: Texas Instruments, Hewlett Packard, Casio, Canon and Citizen. In 2002 Kinpo had a staff of more than 10,000 employees worldwide with R&D centers in Taiwan, Shanghai and Beijing, mass production facilities in Dongguan, and manufacturing supports in Thailand. In 1996, Kinpo began to set up production facilities in Dongguan, China and, since then, has expanded its operations to Shanghai and Beijing. The Chang An factory in Dongguan is Kinpo's major manufacturing with 4,000 employees assembling products such as calculators,electronic dictionaries, global positioning systems, and digital cameras.
Kinpo established
Cal-Comp Electronics (Thailand) in 1989 to take advantage of local highly skilled work force. Cal-Comp has six manufacturing plants designed and built to cater to product features. There are more than 30 SMT product lines in total. Computer aided manufacturing facilities are installed to upgrade product quality and reduce costs. Kinpo Thailand employs more than 6,000 employees working on about one hundred assembly lines.
Another member in the Kinpo Conglomerate is Taiwan based
Compal Electronics, Inc. with a workforce of about 9,000 employees (2002 numbers). Compal manufactures its products at two locations: Ping-chen Factory in Taiwan and Kunshan Factory in China.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Koh-I-Noor Hardtmuth 

Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth - a manufacturer of pencils, pens and art supplies - was founded in 1790 by Joseph Hardtmuth of Austria and named after the famous Indian diamond Koh-I-Noor. The company was moved in 1848 to Budweis, a Bohemian town which belongs now to the Czech Republic. Koh-I-Noor Hardtmuth introduced in 1977 very interesting design variations of the TI-30, TI-1050 and TI-1265.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Kosmos 

Kosmos International, Inc. located in Atlanta, Georgia introduced the first hand-held biorhythm computer and the world's first hand-held astrological computer. Their products based on calculator chips manufactured by Texas Instruments.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

LEO Electronics (HK) Ltd. 

Leo Electronics Co., Ltd., a Japanese manufacturer of electronic equipment established early in the 1990's production in Shenzen, China. At March 1st, 1996 Toshiba Corporation announced to take a majority holding in this plant and we assume that some Texas Instruments calculators were manufactured there.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Litronix 

Litronix, Inc., (Cupertino, CA) was an early light-emitting diode (LED) company that became a leading supplier of displays for handheld calculators and digital watches (e.g. the Hamilton Pulsar line).
Litronix Malaysia Sdn Bhd located in Penang was established in March 1972 with 7-segment light-emitting diode (LED) displays as initial products. Within a few years, the company expanded its product base into LED related consumer products such as LED watches, calculators and LED games. By 1981, Litronix Malaysia was purchased by Siemens in 1976. Today, the plant produces optoelectronic couplers, displays and intelligent displays and custom designed optoelectronic devices. Siemens Penang now has a workforce of 1,200 employees on premises with a total area of 15,330 square meters.

Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Longines Symphonette

"At the time the famous Texas Instruments Datamath calculators appeared on the market, Longines Symphonette was primarily selling music - boxed set treasuries - Frank Sinatra, Mozart, etc.
However, they viewed themselves as a direct marketing company, as well, and also produced a catalog that featured a number of hard goods products including a calculator." 
Jeff Kobil, former employee of Longines Symphonette

There are three different calculators sold by Longines Symphonette reported, the LTP5405 based on Bowmar technology and two "Electronic Calculator" models based on Texas Instruments technology.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Mariner Electronic Calculator (MELCOR)

Melcor Electronics Corporation of Farmingdale, New York (USA) was one of the first US companies to enter the pocket calculator business. Like Bowmar, they were known for quality products but only made calculators for a few years.
Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm, Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators

MBO

MBO (Muenchner Buero Organisation) was founded in 1966 by Peter Schmidt and Lorenz Niederleitner and is registered since July 1st, 1967 as MBO Schmidt & Niederleitner GmbH & Co. KG in Deisenhofen near Munich. Within just 10 years MBO advanced in Germany to the leader of the still young market of electronic calculators and watches with a turnover of 125 million German Mark. JENOPTIK AG - a German Hightech company -  purchased MBO in September 1994 and distributes calculators and other office products still under the MBO label. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Meijer

Meijer’s was founded in 1934 by Dutch immigrant Hendrik Meijer as a supermarket in Greenville, MI. Meijer pioneered the American supercenter concept and runs today more than 180 stores, most of them in Michigan. 
In 2009 Meijer started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors and introduced the TI-30XIIS in orange and dark blue.

Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Monroe Calculator Company

Frank Stephen Baldwin, 1838-1925, American inventor, began in 1870 to experiment with the design of mechanical calculators. The device was patented and marketed in 1875. The improved 1875 machine initiated the development of the second fundamental principle in rotary four-rules calculators which became known as "The Baldwin Principle."  Baldwin developed many more calculators during his life. His last model was the forerunner of the Monroe machine. The Monroe Calculator was used extensively in the 1930's. The Monroe Calculator Company was formed in 1912 and was a pioneer in electric adding machines. In the 1970‘s most Monroe – a subsidary of Litton Inc. - calculators were OEM-products manufactured by Canon or Compucorp (Computer Design Corporation of Los Angeles, California ). Monroe Calculators are still sold today through Monroe Systems for Business.
Joerg Woerner based on an article from Reece Franklin, Computer News of San Diego.

Montgomery Ward

American department store which also sold calculators through a general merchandise catalog. Montgomery Ward labels were usually placed on calculators already made by other companies.
Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm, Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators

Yes, they placed their labels on a lot of different calculators produced by either APF, Lloyd's, Novus or Texas Instruments. Within the Datamath Calculator Museum we'll focus only on the TXI-prefixed models.

Montgomery Ward to close all stores 

CHICAGO — Montgomery Ward Inc., the department store chain that helped pioneer American retailing, said Thursday that it is shutting down after more than 125 years in business and will file for bankruptcy. 
The chain — with 250 stores and 37,000 employees in 31 states — fell victim to competition from other big retailers. 

"Sadly, today's action is unavoidable," chief executive Roger Goddu said, citing weak holiday sales as the final straw for a struggling company that emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection just last year. 
The statement came hours after scores of Montgomery Ward employees began filing out of the company headquarters with boxes in hand. 

Several said they had been told during a meeting that General Electric Co.'s GE Capital Unit, owner of Montgomery Ward, was pulling financial support after sluggish holiday sales. GE Capital referred all calls to Ward headquarters in Chicago. 
"I'm just devastated," said Anece Rich, a 28-year employee who worked in the mail room. "They took care of us as best they could." 

Begun in 1872, Ward pioneered mail-order catalogs when it came out with a single sheet of dry-good items for sale. It was the first U.S. mail-order house to sell general merchandise. Sears, Roebuck & Co. was not founded until 1886 and did not put out its first general merchandise catalog until a decade after that. 
Ward — known affectionately to its customers as Monkey Ward — opened its first store in Plymouth, Ind., in 1926. 
Ward has been financially unstable for years. In 1999, it emerged from bankruptcy and announced a plan to revamp many of its stores. But some analysts said it was too little too late. 
"Wards has not established themselves as anything distinctive in the marketplace," said George Whalin, president of California-based Retail Management Consultants. "There's just no reason to go there — unless maybe they're the closest store to your house." Whalin said it had become increasingly difficult for Ward to survive in a market swamped with competitors like Home Depot, Best Buy and Target. 
News of Ward's apparent demise comes two days after Massachusetts-based discount chain Bradlees Inc. announced it is going out of business. 

"It's brutal. It's as competitive as anything out there," Whalin said. 
Wards had been shooting for sales growth this year of about 9 percent. Instead, it hovered at a sluggish 2 percent. 
Martha Irvine, Associated Press (December 29, 2000)

MOS Technology

In August 1974, a group of eight engineers and marketers, including Bill Mensch and Chuck Peddle, left Motorola to work for MOS Technology Inc., Pennsylvania. MOS Technology was, at the time, the world's largest manufacturer of calculator chips, and it decided to move up to microprocessors. Commodore International, the main client of 4-function-chips for pocket calculators by MOS Technology, bought the company the other day in October 1976, although Commodore was in financial troubles itself. The later 8-bit microprocessor MOS6502 started in October 1977 a revolution with the PET2001 (Personal Electronic Transactor), the best selling "Personal Computer".
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Mostek Corp.

Mostek was founded in 1969 as a spin-off of Texas Instruments engaged in the manufacturing and marketing of Metal Oxide Semiconductors and Large Scale Integration (MOS/LSI) integrated circuits. Already in May, 1970 Mostek started the development of the MK6010, the world's first "single-chip" calculator circuit for for Nippon Calculating Machine Company, better known under the brand Busicom. The MK6010 – introduced January, 1971 - was used in Busicom's first handheld model, the Handy LE-120. Sold in 1971, it was the world's smallest handheld calculator for at least a year. Production volume of the MK6010 was 60.000 pieces. Not only did Mostek attract the attention of the electronic community, but they also attracted the attention of major consumers of MOS circuits and the company began an important relationship with Hewlett-Packard as the major supplier of integrated circuits for H-P's scientific calculators. Hewlett-Packard soon became Mostek's largest customer.
Mostek merged with United Technologies in 1979.

Mary Hall and Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Nam Tai Electronics, Inc.

Nam Tai Electronics, Inc. was founded in 1975 and was a major participant in the sale of consumer electronics products in China through the mid 1970s and early 1980s. The Company established manufacturing facilities in Hong Kong in 1978, expanded these facilities into China in 1980, and subsequently moved to Shenzhen, China in 1987 to take advantage of lower overhead costs and competitive labour rates. Since that time it has concentrated on the manufacture of electronics products for its OEM customers.
The Company manufactures a wide range of electronic calculators with a variety of features. These include calculators designed for different uses, including graphic and scientific calculators, mini card, scientific, desk top, hand held, graphical and printer calculators. In 1998 Nam Tai bought 20% of the shares of Group Sense (International) Limited. In 1999 Nam Tai received the Supplier Excellence Award from Texas Instrument for the fourth consecutive year.
Nam Tai is registered in the British Virgin Islands and maintains offices in Hong Kong and Vancouver, Canada.

Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

National Semiconductor

National Semiconductor was founded May 27, 1959 in Danbury, Connecticut, by eight former engineers of Sperry Rand Corporation. The company started with simple transistors for military accounts and started selling integrated circuits in the year 1962 for the Mariner Venus flight.
The semiconductor industry grew up in the 1970s as electronics technology rapidly shifted to consumer applications. National Semiconductor grew rapidly, opening manufacturing sites around the world, and became world-renowned for its technology. At the same time, the company aggressively pursued product markets, selling calculators, watches, grocery checkout
machines, and even mainframe computers. In 1973 the first hand-held calculators and digital watch lines under the Novus name are introduced and the business grew until end of the 1970s. Today National Semiconductors is one of the leading manufacturer of integrated circuits.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Navtronic

Specialized Electronics Corporation (SEC) was a Illinois based company developing high sophisticated Flight Computers during the 1970's.  
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

New Specialties

New Specialties, Inc. was a Georgia based company developing the specialized Apothecalc Computer during 1987.  
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Office Depot

Office Depot is one of the world's leading suppliers of office products for small to large businesses located all over the world.
In 2007 Office Depot started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors. e.g. the TI-30X IIS in pink and TI-84 Plus SE in teal.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Office Max

Office Max was founded in 1988 and is the third-largest office supplies retailer in the USA behind Staples and Office Depot.
In 2008 Office Max sold the Texas Instruments TI-84 Plus Silver Edition in a very unusual retail color named Raspberry Sorbet.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Optrex Corporation

OPTREX Corporation was founded July, 1976 in Tokyo. They started immediately the production of Lyquid Crystal Displays (LCD) for calculator applications. Already in the year 1979 supplying in large volume of LCDs for Texas Instruments started. In the year 2000 a production facility for LCDs was established in Thailand. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Privileg

The label Privileg was placed by Quelle, the largest warehouse in Germany selling through a catalog, on calculators manufactured by other companies.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Up to now there is only one of the hundreds Privileg calculators reported to be manufactured by Texas Instruments. 

Radio Shack

Radio Shack (a Tandy corporation company) is a large US based store chain selling electronic products and parts. Similar to the other catalog distributors they sold and still sell calculators produced by other companies.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Some of the early calculators sold by Radio Shack were produced by Texas Instruments. Nevertheless you'll find in the Datamath Calculator Museum some interesting products without any relationship to Texas Instruments. But they are from some evidence in the history of electronic calculators.

Rapid Data

Rapid Data Systems & Equipment Ltd. is one of the few Canadian based companies producing portable electronic calculators. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Reactor

The brand Reactor was used by a dutch department store called HEMA, part of the Bijenkorf group. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

RFT

The RFT-Kombinat of the former GDR (German Democratic Republic) produced already in 1973 the first electronic calculators. Most of the early calculators based on designs introduced by Texas Instruments or Toshiba. Later products were OEM-products from Japan supliers. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Rockwell

North-American Rockwell Microelectronics Corporation based in Anaheim, California, USA was contracted in 1968 by Sharp Electronics of Japan to develop the four Integrated Circuits for the QT-8D desktop calculator. By 1970 Rockwell was the largest manufacturer of MOS/LSI (Large Scale Integration) chips and acquired in 1972 Unicom, a business unit of competitor American Microsystems, Inc. (AMI) to market electronic calculators. Rockwell manufactured calculators starting in 1972 for Lloyd’s, Rapid Data and Sears Roebuck, early in 1974 under the Unicom brand and later in 1974 under the Rockwell brand. Rockwell quit the calculator manufacturing business in 1977 and focused on aviation and industrial automation business. Rockwell Semiconductor was spun-off from Rockwell in 1999 and is known today as Conexant Systems Inc., Newport Beach, California.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Sansyu

Sansyu Precision Co., Ltd. (Hieda, Japan) was founded in 1976 and specialized in precision plastic and metal processing. Main products are Injection Molding, Metal Stamping and Assembly. In 1977 they started production of the TI-1750, the first LCD calculator sold under the TI label. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Santron

More to come.

Sanyo

SANYO Electric Works, Moriguchi City, Osaka was founded in 1947. Three years later SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. was established and becomes Japan's top manufacturer of bicycle generator lamps. Other products of the 50‘s include plastic radios,washing machines, and electric heaters. In 1964 the Cadnica line of rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries made possible the start of the cordless era in electric products. In 1971 Sanyo used these batteries with the portable but heavy desktop calculator ICC-0081 and followed with a complete line of smaller products intended for office use.

Today SANYO products are directly managed by five internal companies, a Business Development Headquarters and many affiliated companies: Multimedia Company, Home Appliances Company, Commercial Equipment Systems Company, Semiconductor Company, and Soft Energy Company.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Schoenherr GmbH

Schoenherr GmbH, Horb (Germany) was founded in 1974 by Mr. Schoenherr. He invented in 1975 the world’s first Braille element that could display and erase Braille characters. This patented invention was the prerequisite for developping Braille displays which enabled access to the world of computers for the blind. In 1980 Mr. Schoenherr was awarded with the Louis-Braille-Prize and Schoenherr GmbH introduced with the Braillotron TI-30, the first electronic calculator using a refreshable Braille cell for output. In 1981 he was killed in an accident and two years later the company was taken over by the "Deutsche Blindenstudienanstalt", a non-profit-organization in Marburg as EHG GmbH and was the production site for Braille displays. Since 1994 the company refirmed as EHG Handy Tech Elektronik GmbH.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Sears

Richard Sears started in 1886 selling watches to supplement his income as station agent at North Redwood, Minnesota. Sears  settled already one year later the company's first Chicago location and it took another year until he published the first catalog featuring watches and jewelry. In 1893 the corporate name becomes Sears, Roebuck and Co., still a well know name. Today Sears, Roebuck and Co. is a broadline retailer with significant service businesses. In 2002, the Sears revenue was $41.4 billion added from approximately 870 full-line stores, a variety of specialty catalogs and through its Web sites, www.sears.com and www.landsend.com.
J
oerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum  

Sensory

Sensory Inc., based in Santa Clara, CA, was founded in 1994 and is a leader in speech technologies for consumer products.
June 11, 2001 Sensory signed an agreement for the rights to continue production of Texas Instruments Inc.’s MSP50C6xx speech synthesis integrated circuit (IC) product line.
J
oerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Sharp

The Sharp Corporation was founded in 1912 by Tokuji Hayakawa and takes its name from one of our founder's first inventions, the Ever Sharp propelling pencil, developed in 1915. Sharp has continued this creative tradition, developing technologically innovative products to enhance our lives, add to our comfort, broaden our perspectives and boost our productivity. Sharp is recognised for its pioneering research into Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology. Sharp introduced the first LCD electronic calculator back in 1973. Since then, it has continued to develop revolutionary LCD products such as the ViewCam, Ultra-Lite notebook pc and touch-screen  personal organisers. Perhaps the best illustration of the impact of liquid crystal display technology on product development is with the simple calculator. Sharp introduced the world's first all-transistor desktop calculator in 1964. By 1979, just 15 years later, Sharp announced the world's first  super-thin (1.6mm) card sized calculator. Today, Sharp leads the way in LCD and is a worldwide developer of core technologies that will play an integral role in the development of  digital technology such as optoelectronics, infrared, semiconductors and flash memory.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Shopko

Shopko (formerly ShopKo until May 2007) was founded in April 5, 1962 by James Ruben as a discount store in Ashwaubenon, WI. Shopko runs today 135 stores located in 13 states.
In 2010 Shopko started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors and introduced the TI-30XIIS in pink, dark blue and green.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Staples

Staples is the world's leading supplier of office products for small to large businesses with over 2,000 located in 11 countries.
In 2004 Staples started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors. e.g. the TI-83 Plus in lime green.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Stokes Publishing Company

The Sunnyvale, California based company Stokes Publishing Company, Inc. sells under the label "The Educator" calculators optimized for teaching purposes.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Tamaya

Tamaya & Company Limited, Tokyo, Japan is a well known manufacturer of Surveying Instruments and Navigation Instruments (Marine Sextant, Navigator Calculator, Binoculars, Clock, Barometer & Triangles).
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Target

Retailing company Dayton Dry Goods, Co. was founded already in 1962 and opened the first Target store in 1962. In 2006 Target was the sixth-largest retailer in the United States with 1488 stores and $59.4 billions.
In 2002 Target started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors, e.g. the TI-83 Plus in violet and blue. In 2007 we found the TI-503SV, TI-30XIIS and TI-84 Plus SE in pink.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

TEAL

Teal calculators are a bit of a puzzle. "TEAL" was a brand name of calculators made by Tokyo Electronic Application Laboratory. Entering the calculator business in the late 1960s the company produced some innovative calculators, including early LCD models. Some Teal calculators were also sold under the names of other companies.
Unfortunately, the company was greatly affected by the calculator price war of the mid 1970s and went out of business in 1978.
However, some calculators, like the Photon, have a U.S.A. address, which may be the American division of Tokyo Electronic Application Laboratory Ltd., though the date code on the integrated circuit of the Teal Photon displayed here is 1979, which is later than the date at which the Japanese company supposedly went out of business.
Calculators are also found under the Tealtronic name, which may or may not be related to TEAL.
"TEAL" is a brand name of the calculator made by Tokyo Elestronic Apprication Lab. It was established around 1968 as a electric calculator company.They have two factories in Nagano area. They sold calculator to US and European department with the brand name "TEAL". And they sold many calculators to Canon Toshiba, Hitachi as a OEM machine. By fierce calculator war, it was bancrupted 1978. It was said "the last bancrupted company in the electric calculator war". After that only 2 companies - Sharp and Casio remain as an electronic calculator company in Japan.
Shinichiro Osaki and Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Texet

More to come.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Tiger Electronics

Tiger Electronics Ltd., an American toy manufacturer, was founded in 1978 by Randy Rissmnn and Roger Shiffman. In February 1995 Tiger Electronics aquired Texas Instruments Inc.'s toy division and agreed to make and market electronic toys for Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Hasbro Inc.
With the Super Speak & Spell, Super Speak & Math and Deluxe Super Speak & Spell at least three Texas Instruments’ products survived for some years.
Since 1998 Tiger Electronics is part of the Hasbro toy company.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Toshiba

Toshiba's early history has two strands: 1875 saw the establishment of Tanaka Seizo-sho (Tanaka Engineering Works), Japan's first manufacturer of telegraphic equipment. Its founder, Hisashige Tanaka (1799-1881), was well known from his youth for inventions that included mechanical dolls and a perpetual clock. Under the name Shibaura Seisaku-sho (Shibaura Engineering Works), his company became one of Japan's largest manufacturers of heavy electrical apparatus. In 1890, Hakunetsu-sha & Co., Ltd., was established as Japan's first plant for electric incandescent lamps. Subsequent diversification saw the company evolve as a manufacturer of consumer products. In 1899, the company was renamed Tokyo Denki (Tokyo Electric Co.).
In 1939, these two companies, leaders in their respective fields, merged to form an integrated electric equipment manufacturer, Tokyo Shibaura Denki (Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd.). The company was soon well known as 'Toshiba', which became its official name in 1978.
Toshiba, a world leader in high technology, is today an integrated manufacturer of electrical and electronic products spanning information & communications equipment and systems (PC and other omputer systems, storage devices, telecommunications equipment, social automation systems, medical electronics equipment, space related products, etc.), electronic components & materials (semiconductors, electron tubes, optoelectronic devices, liquid crystal display, batteries, printed circuits boards, etc.), power systems & industrial equipment (industrial apparatus, power generating plants, transportation equipment, elevators & escalators, etc.) and consume products (video and digital home products, home appliances, etc.).

Toshiba plays an important role in the history of Texas Instrument‘s calculators. The only official reported calculator manufactured by Toshiba and sold under the TI brand is the TI-66. Anyway, if you dig deeper into some other calculators like the TI-1106, TI-1750 or TI-1790 you’ll notice more than the influence of Toshiba’s calculator chips. Toshiba TEC Corporation is the proofen manufacturer of most desktop calculators introduced by Texas Instruments between 1981 and 1988. Today most calculators developed and manufactured by Texas Instruments and their OEM partners use a "brain" with the Toshiba logo.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Toshiba TEC Corporation.

Due to the Law on Elimination of Excessive Concentration of Economic Power, Tokyo Electric Appliances Co., Ltd. was established and separated from the Ohito Plant of Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., the later "Toshiba". About 1952 the company was renamed as Tokyo Electric Co. (TEC). In October, 1966 TEC aquired Tokyo Business Machine Co. (established 1945) and started in 1971 the production of electronic cash register. After a merger with TEC Electronics Corporation the company name changed to TEC Corporation and since 1999 to Toshiba TEC Corparation. Major overseas manufacturing subsidiaries were established 1985 in Singapore and 1995 in Malaysia. Toshiba TEC Corparation manufactured for Texas Instruments between 1981 and 1988 more or less the whole line of desktop calculators.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

True Value Hardware Stores

True Value was founded already in 1948 and developed soon as leader in the hardware industry. With its huge product selection and nowadays over 7,000 stores, True Value is a trusted resource for do-it-yourselfers in big cities and small towns alike. In 1963 True Value merged with Cotter & Company, founded in 1948, too. In the year 1976 two calculators manufactured by Texas Instruments, the TI-1200 and TI-1250 were sold under the label of the True Value Hardware Stores.

Cotter & Company grew fast, in 1979 sales topped the first time $1 billion. But Cotter & Company didn't stop there! It had grown to a retail cooperative of over 5,000 stores with a wholesale volume of more than $2.4 billion by July 1997 when it merged with ServiStar Coast to Coast Corporation to form TruServ.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Truly

Truly Electronics Manufacturing Ltd. was established in the year 1979 in Hong Kong as a contract manufacturer of calculators. In 1992 Truly started production of LC-Displays for their own products and since 1994 they cover 100% of the inhouse consumption. Today Truly has three has three major manufacture and marketing businesses:

* Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels and modules
* Telecommunications products including pagers and GSM telephone handsets
* Portable calculators for different demands (sold under Truly brand or OEM business, e.g. Canon) 

The three manufacturing bases are all located in the Group's 2.2 million square feet industrial complex in Guangdong, Province of China.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Wal-Mart

Sam Walton founded in 1962 a tiny chain of stores in Arkansas and Kansas. In the 1980s, Wal-Mart became one of the most successful retailers in America. Sales grew to $26 billion by 1989, compared to $1 billion in 1980. Employment increased tenfold. At the end of the decade there were nearly 1,400 stores. Today, Sam's gamble is a global company with more than 1.3 million associates worldwide and nearly 5,000 stores and wholesale clubs across 10 countries.
In 2003 Wal-Mart started to release some well-known calculators with the Texas Instruments brand in unusual colors. e.g. the TI-30XII series in purple and lime-green.

Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Western Auto

Western Auto Supply Company was started in 1909 in Kansas City, Missouri by George Pepperdine as mail order business for replacement auto parts. The first retail store was established in 1921, and grew quickly as automobiles became more and more common. By the end of the 50s Western Auto was very much like a Sears store, even equipped with Catalog Order Center. Auto Parts comprised only a small percentage of the company's sales by the mid-60's and had all but disappeared by the 70s. In 1987, Sears Roebuck purchased Western Auto and in 1998 parent company Sears sold the remnants of Western Auto to Advance Auto Parts of Roanoke, Virginia.
You can easily recognize the calculators sold by Western Auto as Texas Instruments products. Most calculators were only personalized with a wooden foil on the key plate, the others received a new nameplate.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Western Digital

Western Digital Corporation, originally called General Digital Corporation, was founded in California on April 23, 1970 by Alvin B. Phillips. Mr. Phillips had 20 years of semi-conductor experience, which included setting up IC facilities for Motorola. They rapidly became the largest independent manufacturer of calculator chips in the world, one million chips by 1975. Original officers of the company include Mr. Phillips, Mr. Larry Alves, Mr. Albert Dall, Mr. Henry Rodeen, Mr. Richard Sirrine and Mr. Joseph Baia. During the early Eighties, Western Digital shifted its focus to the newly emerging PC market.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Zayre

Zayre Corporation was founded in 1956 by Stanley and Sumner Feldberg in Hyannis, Massachusetts tracing back to the New England Trading Company in Boston founded already in 1919 by the two brothers Max and Morris Feldberg.
Zayre (Gut), which means "very good" in Yiddish, was started as a discount department store chain. In Summer 1976 Zayre distributed exclusively the three Texas Instruments calculators Concept I, Concept II and Concept III based on the TI-1200, TI-1250, resp. SR-16 II. In the same year Zayre launched T.J. Maxx, a new off-price chain selling family apparel and home fashions and in 1984 a new warehouse retail concept to the Northeast called BJ's Wholesale Club was introduced.
In 1988, Zayre sold their own nameplate to Ames Department Stores, Inc., a rival discount department store chain, and the company renamed itself to The TJX Companies, Incorporated. Ames acquired the bankrupt 392 Zayre stores, closing 74 of them. After some reorganizing in 1990 Ames announced in August 2002 to go out of business and closed the remaining shops in October 2002. 
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum

Zeny Corporation

Zeny Corporation was founded already 1974 in Taipei, Taiwan and manufactures telephone sets, answering machines and electronic calculators. In 2004 Zeny Corp. counted about 600 employees. In the 1990's Zeny Corp. (Shenzen) was established in China and we know Texas Instruments calculators from both plants (TI-5024/Taiwan, TI-5033 II/China).
Other major customers of Zeny are Canon and Sharp of Japan.
Joerg Woerner, Datamath Calculator Museum


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If you have additions to the above article please email: joerg@datamath.org.

© Joerg Woerner, January 13, 2001. No reprints without written permission.